Kilincer C; Hamamcioglu MK.
Acta Neurochirurgica (0942-0940)
2010 Mar. Cilt152,Iss.3;p.557-8

Kilincer C; Tiryaki M; Celik Y; Turgut N; Balci K; Utku U; Cobanoglu S.
Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi = Turkish Journal Of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES (1306-696X)
2008 Oct. Cilt14,Iss.4;p.333-7
With the advent of improved neuroradiological methods, it has been determined that frequency of traumatic carotid artery dissections is higher than previously observed. Since delayed neurological deficits may develop in some asymptomatic undiagnosed cases, it is essential to consider the possibility of the carotid artery dissection and evaluate it properly in suspicious cases. In this article, a case of internal carotid artery dissection and subsequent cerebral infarction following a motor vehicle accident is presented. Pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic method choices and treatments in this rare but severe condition are discussed in light of the relevant literature in order to convey current knowledge.

Mehmet Tatli; A. Guzel; C. Kilinçer; S. Batun.
Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum
2008-07-22. Cilt104;
[Background ]Severe head injury (SHI) is often associated with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH), vasospasm, and results in an unfavorable outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nimodipine on platelet aggregation in SHI. ] ] [ [[Method ]This prospective study consisted of 80 patients (53 male, 27 female; ages ranging from 17 years to 65 years, mean: 36.2 years) with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score, GCS ≤8). All patients received antioedema therapy and prophylactic anticonvulsant. The patients were randomly assigned to either the nimodipine group (2 mg=h continuous infusion for one week) ([n]=45) or the control group ([n]=35). There were 13 patients with tSAH in the nimodipine group and 10 patients with tSAH in the control group. The platelet aggregation ratio (PAR) was measured on the initial day and the 7[th] day. Higher PAR indicates lower circulating platelet aggregates.] [Findings ]The two groups were well matched for age, sex, mode of injury, neurological status and CT scan findings. In fact, comparison of PAR and GCS in the two treatment groups revealed no difference on the first day. Compared to initial values, the nimodipine group showed a significantly higher PAR value (0.6 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2, [p][p][th] day. As a result, on the 7[th] day, the nimodipine group had a significantly higher PAR values (0.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2, [Conclusions  Nimodipine effectively inhibits platelet hyperaggregability in severe head injury patients with or without traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Thus, it may have a potential for use in these patients. However, its effect on long-term outcomes such as death and disability rates and quality of life is still to be determined.]

Mustafa Kemal Hamamcioglu; C. Kilincer; E. Altunrende; T. Hicdonmez; O. Simsek; S. Akyel; S. Cobanoglu.
Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum
2008-07-22. Cilt104;
[Cerebral vasospasm remains the leading cause of death and permanent neurological deficit after subarachnoid haemorrhage. We report our clinical experience with a series of 325 patients, in order to identify the factors affecting the incidence and severity of vasospasm, and to determine its effect on the outcome. Data obtained in all patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage between 1996 and 2005 at the Neurosurgery Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty were reviewed. Patient characteristics, computed tomography and angiography findings, existence of clinical vasospasm, the degree of clinical deterioration, and outcome were analyzed. Sixty-one patients (18.8%) experienced clinical vasospasm. The average beginning day of the clinical vasospasm was 4.8 (±3.2) days (range, 1–15 days). The clinical decline attributable to vasospasm lasted 12.5 (±6.9) days on average (range, 4–36 days). The mean GCS at the the initial day of vasospasm was 11.3 (±3) points (range, 5–15 points). The worst GCS during the course of vasospasm was 7.2 (±4) points on average (range, 3–14 points). Thirty-seven of 61 patients had permanent motor deficit after vasospasm. Forty patients had infarcted areas on their CT scan. The anterior cerebral artery territory was involved in 31 of them. Twenty-three patients died and 38 patients recovered from vasospasm. The presence of vasospasm was correlated with poor outcome. We found that the initial loss of consciousness, motor deficit at admission, arterial hypertension, intraventricular blood, and higher Fisher’s grade on CT scan correlated with the increased risk of vasospasm. ]

Mehmet Tatli; A. Guzel; C. Kilincer; H. M. Goksel.
Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum
2008-07-22. Cilt104;
[ [ [[Background ]Intracranial aneurysms are rare in children, constituting less than 2% of all cerebral aneurysms. Relative to their adult counterparts, published series are few and case numbers are small. ] ] [ [[Method ]Nine children (5 males and 4 females, ages 13–18 years old) are reported. These patients constituted 6% of a total of 150 cerebral aneurysm cases treated at our institution over a 12-year period. ] ] [ [[Findings ]Eight patients presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage; one patient’s aneurysm was identified incidentally after head trauma. All but one of the patients were in good clinical grade (Hunt and Hess grades I to III). Aneurysm locations were: internal carotid artery (ICA) (5 cases), anterior communicating artery (2 cases), anterior cerebral artery (1 case) and vertebrobasilar junction (1 case). A giant (ICA bifurcation) aneurysm and bilateral ICA bifurcation aneurysms were each observed in one patient. Angiographic vasospasm was detected in three patients. Clinical deterioration attributable to vasospasm was observed in one of them. Seven patients underwent craniotomy, and aneurysms were clipped succesfully. One patient underwent endovascular coiling for a vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm. One patient died due to rebleeding before surgery on the second day of her initial haemorrhage. The 6-month Glasgow Outcome Score was 5 in seven patients and 4 in one patient. ] ] [ [[Conclusions ]Our treatment regimen for pediatric aneurysms is similar to that used in adults, and consists of surgical clipping as the mainstay of treatment, with endovascular techniques reserved for selected cases. With the exception of one patient who died due to early rebleeding, this regimen resulted in good clinical outcomes. ] ] ]

Hamamcioglu MK; Hicdonmez T; Kilincer C; Cobanoglu S.
Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica (1349-8029)
2008 May. Cilt48,Iss.5;p.223-6
Three patients presented with rare intrasacral extradural arachnoid cysts manifesting as sensory deficiencies and pain in the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging with various sequences identified the cysts. Two patients underwent surgery via laminectomy of the sacrum for cyst exploration and disconnection of the cyst with the dural theca. Postoperative outcome was favorable in these two patients. Intrasacral extradural arachnoid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low back pain.

Kiris T; Kilincer C.
Neurosurgery (1524-4040)
2008 Mar. Cilt62,Iss.3;p.674-82; discussion 674-82
OBJECTIVE: Anterolateral partial oblique corpectomy (OC) aims to decompress the cervical spinal cord without subsequent fusion and saves the patient from graft-, instrument-, and fusion-related complications. Although it is a promising technique, there are few studies dealing with its efficacy and safety. METHODS: In this prospective study, 40 consecutive patients underwent an OC (one to four levels from C3 to C7) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy; they ranged in age from 43 to 78 years (mean, 55 yr). The average follow-up period was 59 months (range, 24-98 mo). Clinical and radiological data were analyzed to assess the results and find possible factors related to outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty-seven (92.5%) of the 40 patients improved by the 6-month follow-up examination according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association score. The improvement was the most prominent in lower extremity dysfunction. Recovery was positively correlated with the preoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association score (r = 0.37, P = 0.018). Permanent Horner's syndrome developed in four patients (10%). During the long-term follow-up period, neurological improvement was maintained and there were no signs of postoperative instability, posture change, or axial pain. CONCLUSION: OC for treating multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy achieved good results with a low morbidity rate. The results of the current study suggest that OC is a good alternative to conventional median corpectomy and fusion techniques in selected cases.

Celik Y; Kilincer C; Hamamcioglu MK; Balci K; Birgili B; Cobanoglu S; Utku U.
Turkish Neurosurgery (1019-5149)
2008 Jan. Cilt18,Iss.1;p.82-4
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant nerve disease usually caused by 1,5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2.2-p12, the region where the PMP-22 gene is located. The patients with HNPP usually have relapsing and remitting entrapment neuropathies due to compression. We present a 14-year-old male who had acute onset, right-sided ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow. He had electrophysiological findings of bilateral ulnar nerve entrapments (more severe at the right side) at the elbow and bilateral median nerve entrapment at the wrist. Genetic tests of the patient demonstrated deletions in the 17p11.2 region. The patient underwent decompressive surgery for ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow and completely recovered two months after the event. Although HNPP is extremely rare, it should be taken into consideration in young adults with entrapment neuropathies.

Inceoglu S; Kilincer C; McLain RF.
Bio-Medical Materials And Engineering (0959-2989)
2008. Cilt18,Iss.2;p.53-60
Stress relaxation during pullout of a pedicle screw decreases the peak load and stiffness of the bone-screw interface. However, it is unknown whether this can be generalized to all types of screw designs. This study aimed to show whether screw design altered the effects of stress relaxation on the mechanical performance of the pedicle screw during pullout. Twelve calf vertebrae were obtained: six vertebrae were instrumented with 7.5x40 mm conical pedicle screws and the other six with 5.0x40 mm cylindrical pedicle screws. The screws with two different designs were pulled out using either a standard pullout or a stress relaxation pullout protocol. Both bone-screw interfaces had lower stiffness in the stress relaxation pullout model than in the standard pullout model, but it was significant in only the cylindrical design group (P<0.05). However, the stress relaxation and standard pullout models did not yield any difference in peak loads in either screw type. Although stress relaxation at the bone-screw interface can alter the mechanical performance of the screw, this may be eliminated by modifying the screw design. A better understanding of viscoelastic properties of the bone-screw interface may help improve implant design and thus, clinical outcomes.

Kilincer C; Asil T; Utku U; Balci K; Hamamcioglu MK.
Journal Of Neurosurgery (0022-3085)
2007 Dec. Cilt107,Iss.6;p.1276-7; author rely 1277-8

Kilincer C; Inceoglu S; Sohn MJ; Ferrara LA; Benzel EC.
Journal Of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal Of The Neurosurgical Society Of Australasia (0967-5868)
2007 Dec. Cilt14,Iss.12;p.1186-91
We aimed to demonstrate the effect of angle and laminectomy on paired pedicle screws to determine whether a 90 degrees screw angle is optimal as has been previously suggested. According to the angle between right and left screws, 28 calf vertebrae were divided into three groups and instrumented as follows: Group I: 60 degrees screw angle; Group II: 90 degrees angle; Group III: 60 degrees angle with laminectomy. The screws were connected using rods and cross-fixators and tested to peak pullout force. Triangulated pedicle screws provided 76.5% more pullout strength than single screws. Most of the specimens failed through loss of convergence angle (toggling of screws on the rods) and subsequent uni- or bilateral screw pullout. Mean+/-SD peak loads were: Group I: 2071+/-622 N; Group II: 1753+/-497 N; Group III: 2186+/-587 N. The differences were not significant (p>0.05). 90 degrees triangulation was not associated with a superior pullout performance versus conventional 60 degrees triangulation, suggesting that achieving additional triangulation angle is not necessary to obtain increased pullout strength. Laminectomy did not alter the effect of triangulation on fixation strength.

Guzel A; Tatli M; Kilincer C; Yilmaz F.
Journal Of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal Of The Neurosurgical Society Of Australasia (0967-5868)
2007 Dec. Cilt14,Iss.12;p.1210-3
Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication of head trauma. A posttraumatic intraventricular arachnoid cyst (AC), neither isolated nor accompanied by a GSF has not been reported previously. A seven-year-old girl was admitted after a severe head injury with a separated right parieto-occipital fracture and contusion. She responded well to conservative therapy. Seven weeks after discharge, she was re-admitted with a large parieto-occipital pseudomeningoencephalocele due to herniation of cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissue to the subgaleal space through the widened fracture defect, an extra-axial cyst at the posterior interhemispheric space and an intraventricular cystic mass. She underwent open surgery, and the intraventricular cystic mass was totally removed. The histological findings were consistent with an AC. One week after dural repair, hydrocephalus developed, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted. She did well during two-year follow-up. The present case is unique as an intraventricular AC following head trauma. When an intraventricular cystic lesion is encountered after severe head trauma, the possibility of an AC should be considered; especially with neighboring contused neural tissue and leptomeningeal cyst formation.

Kilincer C; Ozturk L; Hamamcioglu MK; Altunrende E; Cobanoglu S.
Surgical Neurology (0090-3019)
2007 Oct. Cilt68,Iss.4;p.461-3; discussion 463
BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis as the sole presenting symptom of an upper thoracic intramedullary tumor has never been reported in the English literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 17-year-old boy presented with a long history of hemifacial flushing and hyperhidrosis on the left side of his face and neck. The MRI revealed a large spinal cord tumor at the T1-T2 levels. The patient underwent total excision of the intramedullary tumor via a posterior myelotomy. The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma. The symptoms resolved immediately after the surgery and did not return during the follow-up period of 9 months. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sympathetic irritation on the left side is the mechanism behind this clinical presentation. Its unusual presentation and lack of motor and sensory deficits resulted in delayed diagnosis of this potentially disabling lesion. When autonomic dysfunction of the face and neck is encountered, in addition to the cranial and cervical regions, the upper thoracic levels should be investigated using MRI.

Inceoglu S; Kilincer C; Tami A; McLain RF.
Journal Of Neurosurgery. Spine (1547-5654)
2007 Sep. Iss.3;p.341-6
OBJECT: Elastic deformation has been proposed as a mechanism by which vertebral pedicles can maintain pullout strength when conical screws are backed out from full insertion. The response to the insertion technique may influence both the extent of deformation and the risk of acute fracture during screw placement. The aim of this study was to determine the deformation characteristics of the lumbar pedicle cortex during screw placement. METHODS: Lumbar pedicles with linear strain gauges attached at the lateral and medial cortices were instrumented using 7.5-mm pedicle screws with or without preconditioning by insertion and removal of 6.5-mm screws. The strains and elastic recoveries of the medial and lateral cortices were determined. RESULTS: Mean medial wall strains tended to be lower than mean lateral wall strains when the 6.5-mm and 7.5-mm screw data were pooled (p = 0.07). After the screws had been removed, 71 to 79% of the deformation at the lateral cortex and 70 to 96% of the deformation at the medial cortex recovered. When inserted first, the 7.5-mm screw caused more plastic deformation at the cortex than it did when inserted after the 6.5-mm screw. Occasional idiosyncratic strain patterns were observed. No gross fracture was observed during screw placement. CONCLUSIONS: Screw insertion generated plastic deformation at the pedicle cortex even though the screw did not directly contact the cortex. The lateral and medial cortices responded differently to screw insertion. The technique of screw insertion affected the deformation behavior of the lumbar pedicles. With myriad options for screw selection and placement available, further study is needed before optimal placement parameters can be verified.

Inceoglu S; Kilincer C; Tami A; McLain RF.
Journal Of Neurosurgery. Spine (1547-5654)
2007 Sep. Iss.3;p.347-51
OBJECT: Although the gross anatomy of the pedicle in the human spine has been investigated in great detail, knowledge of the microanatomy of trabecular and cortical structures of the pedicle is limited. An understanding of the mechanical properties and structure of the pedicle bone is essential for improving the quality of pedicle screw placement. To enhance this understanding, the authors examined human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae. METHODS: In this study, the authors obtained seven human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae. The lateral and medial cortices of these pedicle specimens were sectioned and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. Cross-sectional slices of cortex were obtained from each specimen and imaged with the aid of a high-resolution light microscope. Assessments of osteonal orientation, determinations of relative dimensions, and histomorphometric studies were performed. RESULTS: The cortex of the pedicle in each human lumbar vertebra had an osteonal structure with haversian canals laid down mainly in the anteroposterior (longitudinal) direction. The organization of osteons across the transverse cross-section was not homogeneous. The layer of lamellar bone that typically envelops cortical bone structures (such as in long bones) was not observed, and the lateral cortex was significantly thinner than the medial cortex (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The cortical bone surrounding the pedicle differed from bone in other anatomical regions such as the anterior vertebral body and femur. The osteonal orientation and lack of a lamellar sheath may account for the unique deformation characteristics of the pedicle cortex seen during pedicle screw placement.

Kilincer C; Inceoglu S; Sohn MJ; Ferrara LA; Bakirci N; Benzel EC.
Turkish Neurosurgery (1019-5149)
2007 Jul. Cilt17,Iss.3;p.167-77
OBJECTIVE: The vertebral body is the major load bearing part of the vertebra and consists of a central trabecular core surrounded by a thin cortical shell. The aim of this in vitro biomechanical study is to determine the debated issue of load sharing in a vertebral body. METHODS: A series of non-destructive compressive testing on excised human thoracic vertebral bodies were performed. The testing process consisted of a stepwise removal of the vertebrae's trabecular centrum and measurement of surface strains. RESULTS: Load sharing of cortical shell of osteopenic vertebrae (48.1+/-7.6) was significantly higher than that of normal vertebrae (44.3+/-10.6). Load sharing of middle thoracic vertebrae (49.4+/-10.0) was significantly higher than that of lower thoracic vertebrae (42.4+/-8.5). According to general linear model analysis, test speed and load were not found to be effectual on load sharing with the exception that osteopenic vertebrae showed lower cortical load sharing under higher loads. CONCLUSIONS: The cortical shell takes nearly 45% of physiological loads acting upon an isolated thoracic vertebra. Load sharing between cortical shell and trabecular centrum is significantly affected by spinal level and bone mineral density. The load borne by trabecular bone increases towards the lower spinal levels, and decreases by osteoporosis.

Zileli M; Kilincer C; Ersahin Y; Cagli S.
The Spine Journal: Official Journal Of The North American Spine Society (1529-9430)
2007 Mar-Apr. Iss.2;p.165-73
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Primary tumors of the cervical spine are rare, and many issues regarding their surgical management remain unanswered yet. PURPOSE: To demonstrate results of surgery for primary tumors of the cervical spine and to elucidate which factors influence outcome. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Sixty-six surgeries were performed on 35 patients, ranging in age from 7 to 70 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Preoperative and postoperative degree of pain and neurological status were quantified. Radiological investigations were used to detect recurrence and evaluate the stability and fusion. METHODS: Data were collected on patient characteristics, therapy, and results. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 15 years (mean 59.9 months). RESULTS: Posterior (26), anterolateral (24), retropharyngeal (9), combined (4), lateral (2), and transmandibular approaches (1) were used. Chordomas (n=8) and 17 different types of tumors were encountered. One patient died 3 weeks postoperatively and 5 died of their disease at follow-up. Twenty patients had no evidence of disease, and 7 patients had recurrent tumors. According to the Weinstein-Boriani-Biagini classification, tumor extension into both anterior and posterior columns of a vertebra was correlated with a poor outcome. Incomplete resections resulted in tumor recurrence which warranted subsequent surgeries (up to 9), especially in chordoma cases. CONCLUSIONS: Complete tumor resection is the oncologically best surgical strategy and should be attempted whenever possible. However, this may not be feasible in every case because of the complexity of the cervical spine. In these cases, acceptable mortality-morbidity rates and symptom-free years could be achieved by subtotal resections, even for malignant tumors.

Cumhur Kilinçer; Serkan Inceoglu; Moon Jun Sohn; Lisa A. Ferrara; Edward C. Benzel.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
2007. Cilt14,Iss.12;p.1186

Aslan Guzel; Mehmet Tatli; Cumhur Kilincer; Fahri Yilmaz.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
2007. Cilt14,Iss.12;p.1210

Mehmet Tatli; Aslan Guzel; Cumhur Kilinçer; Aydin Sav.
Surgical Neurology
2007. Cilt67,Iss.1;p.94

Tatli M; Guzel A; Kilincer C; Sav A.
Surgical Neurology (0090-3019)
2007 Jan. Cilt67,Iss.1;p.94-8; discussion 98
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic cysts of epithelial origin occurring in the fourth ventricle are very rare. When such a cyst is encountered, the treatment strategy includes surgical removal or fenestration of the cyst into subarachnoid space. CASE 1: A 23-year-old male was diagnosed as having a cyst located in the fourth ventricle causing hydrocephalus; the patient underwent cyst removal via craniotomy. The histopathologic diagnosis was neuroepithelial cyst. Because clinical and neuroradiological findings persisted, he underwent VP shunting. The cyst disappeared and did not recur. CASE 2: A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having a cystic mass in the fourth ventricle and dilatation of the ventricles. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the same findings as those of the first case. The patient refused craniotomy for total mass excision. Therefore, a VP shunt was applied. Postoperatively, the clinical findings and hydrocephalus improved, and complete disappearance of the cystic mass was observed unexpectedly. Both cases had 2 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: There is no proven mechanism to explain resolution of fourth ventricle cysts after a supratentorial VP shunting. We hypothesize that disappearance of the cyst could result from rupture of its wall because of pressure gradient, which might be facilitated by a VP shunt. The current report should not be taken as an argument against cyst removal, which is the established way of treatment. However, considering that the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of these cysts are unclear, VP shunting should be considered especially for recurrent cases accompanied by hydrocephalus.

Hicdonmez T; Cakir B; Hamamcioglu MK; Kilincer C; Cobanoglu S.
Surgical Neurology (0090-3019)
2006 Dec. Cilt66,Iss.6;p.632-3; discussion 633
An unusual case of a giant (8 x 6 x 6 cm) frontoparietal SDE of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a 17-month-old child is reported. The initial diagnosis was made with emergency CT. The purulent material was removed via a frontoparietal craniotomy. A series of postoperative MR imaging showed the gradual reduction in size of the lesion, although collapsed capsule, fibrous thickening of meningeal structures and associated displacement of the underlying brain persisted. The child was symptom-free in a follow-up period of 15 months. This case showed that SDE may reach a giant size and thus may mimic an intra-axial lesion; the coronal MR imaging is a more reliable diagnostic tool than the emergency axial CT in giant SDE of upper convexity localization, and the clinical improvement may be more impressive than the radiological changes.

Hamamcioglu MK; Kilincer C; Hicdonmez T; Simsek O; Birgili B; Cobanoglu S.
European Spine Journal: Official Publication Of The European Spine Society, The European Spinal Deformity Society, And The European Section Of The Cervical Spine Research Society (1432-0932)
2006 Oct. Cilt15 Suppl 5;p.595-8
The pathogenesis, etiology, and treatment of the spinal arachnoid cyst have not been well established because of its rarity. A 57-year-old male was presented with spastic quadriparesis predominantly on the left side. His radiological examination showed widening of the cervical spinal canal and left neural foramina due to a cerebrospinal fluid-filled extradural cyst that extended from C2 to T2 level. The cyst was located left anterolaterally, compressing the spinal cord. Through a C4-T2 laminotomy, the cyst was excised totally and the dural defect was repaired. Several features of the reported case, such as cyst size, location, and clinical features make it extremely unusual. The case is discussed in light of the relevant literature.

Hicdonmez T; Kilincer C; Hamamcioglu MK; Cobanoglu S.
Clinical Neurology And Neurosurgery (0303-8467)
2006 Sep. Cilt108,Iss.6;p.590-4
Although blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intracranial operation is possible, development of a symptomatic spinal hematoma after a posterior fossa surgery has never been reported. A 43-year-old woman underwent a posterior fossa tumor removal in the prone position with no intraoperative difficulty. On the second postoperative day, she complained of severe epigastric pain and developed a rapid onset of paraplegia with anesthesia below the thoracic 5 spinal level. The emergency cranial and spinal MRIs revealed a spinal extramedullary hemorrhage spreading to the whole spinal regions, just sparing the cauda equina area. There was a prominent localized hematoma formation surrounding and compressing the spinal cord at the upper thoracic levels, which was evacuated via an urgent laminectomy. The patient showed partial neurological recovery after the decompression. Development of the spinal hematoma was explained by the movement of blood from the tumor bed into the spinal canal under the effect of gravity, during or after the operation. A 30 degrees head elevation might facilitate the accumulation of blood. Localization of the hematoma formation may be caused by the fact that the upper thoracic levels constitute the apex of the kyphosis. We conclusively suggest that a spinal hematoma should be taken into consideration as a rare but potentially severe complication of a posterior fossa surgery. Meticulous hemostasis and isolation of the surgical area from the spinal spaces are essential. Overdrainage of CSF should be abandoned. Postoperatively, patients should be monitored for spinal findings as well as cranial signs.'u  izle ve paylaş!  Bookmark and Share

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